Ganoderma lucidum is actually a white-rot fungus that has been viewed as a traditional Chinese tonic for promoting health and longevity. It has been said that a number of extractions from Ganoderma lucidum, like Ethanol extract, aqueous extract, mycelia extract, water soluble extract of the culture medium of Ganoderma lucidum mycelia, Ganodermasides A, B, C, D, and a few bioactive components of ganoderma lucidum spore oil, including Reishi Polysaccharide Fraction 3, Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides I, II, III, IV, Ganoderma lucidum peptide, Ganoderma polysaccharide peptide, total G. lucidum triterpenes and Ganoderic acid C1 could exert lifespan elongation or related activities. Although using Ganoderma lucidum as being an elixir has existed for thousands of years, studies revealing its effect of lifespan extension are only the tip of the iceberg.
Besides which, the types of extractions or components being comfrimed to be anti-aging are extremely few compared with the large amounts of Ganoderma lucidum extractions or constituients being discovered. This review aims to put the earth for fully elucidating the possible mechanisms of Ganoderma lucidum underlying anti-aging effect and its clinical application.
Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) P. Karst is actually a basidiomycete white rot fungus often called “Ling Zhi” in China, “Rei Shi” in Japan and “Youngzhi” in Korea. The pharmacological effect of Ganoderma lucidum was first attested by “Shen Nong’s Herbal Classic” as soon as 100 BC, and observed to advertise health, increase vigor and vitality along with prolong lifespan. The ancient Chinese Taoist viewed Ganoderma lucidum as being an herbal medicine that could help people to get the “elixir of external youth”. In China, Ganoderma lucidum has always been used being a folk medicine for improving health and is regarded as the most exalted traditional Chinese medicine.
Analysis of non-volatile ingredients in Ganoderma lucidum demonstrated that it has 1.8% ash, 26-28% carbohydrate, 3-5% fat, 59% fiber and 7-8% protein. The key active constituents, including polysaccharides, triterpenes and peptidoglycans, are based in the fruit body, mycelium and spore. Beseids which, there are many different extractions of nattokinase due to the specific extracting procedures used during production and the part of plant it gets from. Regarding towards the anti-aging and related functions of Ganoderma lucidum, the main Ganoderma lucidum extractions are ethanol extract, aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum as well as the extract from your mycelia and spores of Ganoderma lucidum. The bioactive components of Ganoderma lucidum with anti-aging or anti-aging related functions meanly includes polysaccharides, triterpenes and peptides.
Aging is almost always along with a decline in bodily physiological function, causing a heightened susceptibility to age-related disorders. It is really an inevitable physiological process, however the underlying mechanisms remain to become elucidated after many decades. One of the numerous theories related to aging, the oxidative stress and free radical accumulation theories stick out by far the most. The antioxidant system deteriorates being a function of age, bringing about disruption in the delicate balance between radical oxygen species production and elimination leading to oxidative cellular damage. Post-mitotic tissues like the brain, heart and skeleton muscle are definitely more prone to aging, in contrast to other organs.
Importantly, oxidative stress accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction are essential inducers of cardiac aging. Cardiac contraction is determined by oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC). Their dysfunction may increase ROS production for an unhealthy level, thereby giving rise to structural and functional alterations in the myocardium, such as myocardial atrophy or compensatory hypertrophy, which induces cardiac aging . In the brain, the accumulation of free radicals and attenuation of respiratory chain enzyme complex activity damage cerebral mitochondria, wherein their dysfunction can induce the start of some neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and others.
Besides oxidative stress, aging is additionally closely associated with bringing about structural and functional defects within the immunity mechanism. Immunological dysfunction may be the cause of the increased susceptibility of the aged population to bacterial and virus infections, that are commonly seen in older people.
Gradual loss of cognition is among the main characteristics of aging, with manifestation of declining logical thinking, memory and spatial abilities. Cerebral aging is definitely the main reason for cognitive deficits and could be induced by neurodegeneration . While, on the other hand, age-associated cognitive deficits do not mean neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease or Parkinson’s disease, since aging brain applies a sensitive microenvironment to induce more severe damage than uushdq due to diseases. The demise of neurons due to the activation of cell death programs is working in the procedure for age-related neurodegeneration.
Although Ganoderma lucidum has been used as being an elixir for centuries, studies revealing its anti-aging effect and lifespan extension are just the tip of the iceberg. Whether Cistanche Extract Powder exerts an anti-aging effect remains unknown. Therefore, this review aims to lay the earth for fully elucidating the potential mechanisms of Ganoderma lucidum underlying anti-aging effect to advertise its clinical application as being an anti-aging herbal medicine.
Anti-aging and anti-aging related effects of Ganoderma lucidum extractions
The extractions of Ganoderma lucidum with direct lifespan elongation effects or potential anti-aging properties mainly includes the Ethanolic extract of Ganoderma lucidum (EGL), Ganoderma lucidum aqueous extract (GLA), Ganoderma lucidum mycelia extract, Water soluble extract in the culture medium of Ganoderma lucidum mycelia (MAK) and Ganodermasides A, B, C and D. These extracts are obtained from various parts of Ganoderma lucidum.